Guild Of Master Sweeps Certified
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Guild Of Master Sweeps Certified


Not sure of the difference between a flue and a spigot? Don’t worry – the world of chimney sweeping can throw up all sorts of unfamiliar technical terms! So here is my A to Z dictionary to help you out!

Air Inlet Control
A device which can be set up either automatically or manually to manipulate air quantity for combustion.
Airwash - Secondary air flow which helps stop any staining when it is sucked down an inner window surface, after entering via a fire set-up with a glass front.
Albedo - A term used as a measurement for light reflection on a surface. Darker colours tend to blend in whilst lighter tones, even heat-associated infra-red light, reflect light.
Anthracite - The purest mineral coal with a higher carbon count than other coals. Anthracite is created at a deep depth below the Earth’s surface and is an impressive 300 million years old.
Ash - Dusty residue which remains after fuel burning which is incombustible. It is compound essence which is not water or organic.
Ashpan - A handy device which is removable and crafted to catch any firebed residue.
Ashpit - The chamber basin where the ashpan sits. It is often shaped to also embrace the firebed residue, if needed.
Baffle Plate or Throat Plate
Baffle Plate or Throat Plate - A plate which is either ceramic or metal and fitted above an appliance’s firebed to speed up efficiency by slowing down fire gas flow.
Basic Firebed
Basic Firebed - Glowing embers: the quantity lifts ignition for a test fuel and allows it to charge.
Boiler Vessel
Boiler Vessel - An important part of a solid fuel appliance for heating water, regardless of whether it boils at 100°C.
Boiler Waterways
Boiler Waterways - Compartments inside a boiler for holding water.
Bottomgrate or Grate
Bottomgrate or Grate - An appliance layer built to host the firebed allowing residue to drop down into the ashpit or ashpan. It also provides a passage to draw combustion gases or air.
Breeze - Coke waste that is often powdery in substance.
Burning Rate
Burning Rate - The measurement of fuel mass reduction per time unit, often displayed as kilogrammes per hour.
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Carbon Monoxide (CO) - Poisonous gas known to be highly lethal to human beings. It retains no odour or colour and is formed by carbon (or similar material) combustion from most solid fuels.
Catalytic Converter
Catalytic Converter - A substance set-up which slows down energy formulating chemical reactions; such as ceramic meshes saturated with heavy metals (e.g. osmium) through which fire gases pass. The catalyst halts the temperature of carbon-to-carbon monoxide conversion and carbon monoxide without being changed itself.
Charging Door
Charging Door - Hatch cover for the refuel opening.
Chimney - An overall flue structure.
Chimney Stack
Chimney Stack - Section of the chimney which is seen on the roof of a building.
Coal - A mineral packed with carbon which is created by pressure on broken-down wooden material. It takes up to 400 million years to form. ‘Coal’ as a common phrase used to refer to any wood or mineral fuel lumps (also giving the word ‘charcoal’).
Coke - A solid residue utilised as a fuel which also helps to create steel. Coke is the remainder of a destructive distillation process. It is formed as a result of carbon which is not pure, taken from carbonaceous material such as bituminous coal, after detaching volatile substances.
Combustion Air
Combustion Air - Air which burns fuel, either partially or entirely, when it is directed to a firebox.
Combustion Air Selector
Combustion Air Selector - A device which changes the level of primary and secondary air flow, depending upon the fuel burnt.
Combustion Control Device
Combustion Control Device - Apparatus for adjusting primary or secondary air according to the burning rate.
Combustion Gases
Combustion Gases - Gas-formed compounds resulting from fuel burning inside an appliance.
Conduction - Displacement of electricity or heat via a material.
Convection - Heat flow through a liquid or gas. The heat transfer movement circulates by rising, cooling down and sinking; such as in contained heating appliances.
DAF - An abbreviation for ‘Dry Ash Free’.
Damper Mechanism
Damper Mechanism - Apparatus for moving combustion gas flow resistance.
De-Ashing - Cleaning a fuel bed by taking the fire residue away.
De-Ashing Mechanism - A gadget used to help clear ash from a firebed. Some appliances also use the mechanism to adapt the bottom grate control position.
Deepening Plate or Front Firebars
Deepening Plate or Front Firebars - A plate/grate which stops fuel and ash spills. It is attached to the front of the firebox entrance and can also change the firebox capacity.
Direct Water System
Direct Water System - Heating stored domestic water via hot water circulation from a boiler.
Draught Regulator
Draught Regulator - Component used to control the flue draught by admitting air downstream to the fire bed.
Efficiency - Measurement ratio given as a percentage; of total heat output against input in any given test period.
Energy - Power ability to be physically or mentally active.
Fall-Plate - Hinged plate sometimes used with open fires which can be moved to slow down or prevent combustion by covering up the fuel.
Fire - Heat energy released quickly with a visible light, often by fuel oxidation.
Fireback - Concrete or brick surround set in the background for an open fire
Firebars - Slats utilized for fuel burning.
Firebed/Fuelbed - Fuel kept in a fire box.
Firebox Combustion Chamber
Firebox Combustion Chamber - Section of an appliance used for burning fuel.
Firebox Opening
Firebox Opening - Hollow in a firebox which can be used to fuel the appliance.
Firedoor - A small door in the appliance giving a view of the fire which can also be opened to refuel the firebed.
Fireplace - The overall building structure surrounding a domestic fire.
Flue - A shaft inside a chimney which takes fire gases away from the firebed to the outside air.
Flue Draught
Flue Draught - Point of difference in measurement between static air pressures found at the installation and flue gases.
Flue Gas Adaptor
Flue Gas Adaptor - Fixture adapted for the varieties in shapes and sizes of flue components.
Flue Gas Connector
Flue Gas Connector - Duct providing a passageway for flue gases from the appliance spigot into the flue of the chimney.
Flue Gas Mass Flow
Flue Gas Mass Flow - Flue gas mass sifted from the appliance per time unit.
Flue Gas Temperature
Flue Gas Temperature - Point of temperature in the flue gas measured in a specific section.
Flue Gases
Flue Gases - Compounds of fire gases which depart the appliance flue spigot and drift to the flue gas connector.
Flue Loss Analysis
Flue Loss Analysis - A method of analyzing a heating appliance’s performance. The chemical composition and temperature of displaced fire gases are both examined by ascertaining how much is found in the flue. This calculation provides an estimate of the heat output and efficiency rate.
Flue Socket or Spigot
Flue Socket or Spigot - Connection point within an appliance to establish contact with the flue gas connector. This allows combustion products to leave via the chimney flue.
Flueway - Appliance section which takes gas from combustion to the flue spigot from the firebox.
Fuel Hopper
Fuel Hopper - Store for fire fuel within the appliance used to feed the firebox.
Fuel Regulator
Fuel Regulator - Component to regulate the firebed size.
Fuelbed - Fuel kept within the firebox.
Heat - An energy form created by the movement of molecules and atoms. This motion is produced in different ways depending upon the material. For example, radiation transmits its form through empty space. Conduction, on the other hand, can take the process via solid matter.
Heat Input
Heat Input - The amount of energy given to the appliance from fuel.
Heat Output
Heat Output - The amount of useable heat emitted from the appliance.
Housecoal - Coal, usually bituminous in the British Isles, used for domestic use.
Indirect Water System
Indirect Water System - Heated water set-up which warms retained domestic hot water via a primary heater. Boiler hot water is circulated to produce the effect without blending primary heating water with the stored hot water.
Integral Fuel Storage Container
Integral Fuel Storage Container - A restricted appliance area used to store fuel before it is burnt which is not linked to the fuel charge area.
Kennel or Cannel
Kennel or Cannel - Bituminous coal which is finely grained, light to handle and generally clean. It is also virtually smokeless.
Lignite - Fuel matter which is brown and soft to touch. Its substance is somewhere between bituminous coal and peat.
Masonry Heater or Stove
Masonry Heater or Stove - A room heater which is enclosed and keeps heat within a brick set-up. The best types need just one hour to give 24 hours worth of heat.
Maximum Water Operating Pressure
Maximum Water Operating Pressure - The optimum point for water pressure at which an appliance is considered safe to be used.
Multi-Fuel - An appliance which can burn wood and mineral sourced fuels.
Nominal Heat Output
Nominal Heat Output - The overall output of heat from an appliance as stated by the manufacturer under test conditions using the appropriate fuel.
Operating Tool
Operating Tool - Utensil provided with the appliance for controlling components which are hot, transportable or used for adjusting the fire burn process.
Peat or Turf
Peat or Turf - An early stage form of coal which is wooden and partially decomposed over 1,000 years.
Petroleum Coke or Pet Coke
Petroleum Coke or Pet Coke - Fuel which is solid and burns powerfully. Pet coke is composed of petroleum residue but its intensity can bring higher amounts of sulphuric acid to a local atmosphere and even wreak havoc in appliances.
Primary Air
Primary Air - Air from combustion which is channeled via a fuel bed.
Pyrolignins - Organic substances created by the partial burning of wood.
Pyrolisis - Chemical compound decomposition caused by heat; such as with the lack of oxygen affecting organic materials. Carbonization is the result of complete pyrolysis which leaves only carbon residue.
Pyrometer - Thermometers which are specifically designed to record high temperatures. An optical pyrometer is such a type which examines light conditions of an object to estimate the temperature – if that object is too hot to touch.
Radiation - Energy which is transmitted or emitted via the radiated energy itself, space or a complementary materal. The movement is straight with no intermediary required so it can transport through a vacuum and ebbs away according to the square of the distance involved.
Recommended Fuel
Recommended Fuel - Fuel which is recommended by the manufacturer of the appliance that is of a standard commercial quality.
Recovery Capability
Recovery Capability - A fire’s capability to reignite using fuel which has been previously burnt, within a set time scale, and without outside help.
Refueling Interval
Refueling Interval - The time period to keep a fire going using just a single fuel load.
Residue - The remnants of the fire burning such as ashes and other combustibles which lay in the ashpit of the appliance.
Riddling Mechanism or Riddler
Riddling Mechanism or Riddler - Utensil used for disturbing the firebed and knocking away any ash.
Roomheater - Description for ‘stove’, according to British Standards.
Secondary Air
Secondary Air - A flow of air which helps feed gas combustion when the latter departs the fuel bed.
Slack - Phrase for powdery waste coal.
Slow Combustion Heat Output
Slow Combustion Heat Output - Heating level reached during slow burning under set conditions.
Slow-Combustion Capability - The performance of an appliance to keep burning at a low rate for a minimum amount of time without more fuel; or any other kind of encouragement, and so the firebed will be useable again.
Smoke - Particles which are solid and suspended in fire gas.
Solid Fuel
Solid Fuel - Examples of solid fuel are natural and manufactured wood pieces, and peat briquettes, and solid mineral fuel such as coal.
Solid Mineral Fuel
Solid Mineral Fuel - Lignite, coal, coke and related fuels.
Space-Heating Output - Heating level given by radiation and convection into a nearby room.
Start-up Device - Apparatus to change the passage of heating gas or the combustion (cross section) air opening for the ignition process.
Steady-State Condition - A very minimum amount of changes found in the measurement of values during a consistent time period.
Stove - A general descriptive noun for an appliance which heats a singular space; whether that is its own area (i.e. a cooking stove) or a nearby room (such as a heating stove). The word was originally derived from ‘stofa’ in old English which meant a enclosed area, such as a room.
Test Fuel
Test Fuel - The type of fuel which is used to test appliances and that meets commercial quality standards.
Thermostat - An automatic device for altering the cross-sectional space for a combustion air inlet which is sensitive to changes in temperature.
Total Heat Output
Total Heat Output - The ongoing amount of heat emitting from an appliance which can be used.
Type Test Pressure
Type Test Pressure - A form of pressure affecting each waterway of a test appliance.
Water-Heating Output - Ratio of heat-output-to-water given during a particular testing period.
Wood Powder
Wood Powder - A flammable white powder, akin but different to ash, produced by burning wood. High levels of wood powder may mean a fire set-up has a faulty design.
Working Surfaces
Working Surfaces - Surfaces of an appliance made to transfer heat to an adjacent atmosphere. A heating boiler with a flue gas connector has working surfaces in all of its exterior surfaces, according to EN standards; due to the design of heat transference to the area where the appliance is located.